University of Naples “Federico II” (UNINA) is one of the oldest European universities and the oldest public university in the world. The University was founded in 1224. The number of enrolled students and teaching staff has made the University of Naples one of the largest universities in Italy. Today there are thirteen The Department of Industrial Engineering Departments at “Federico II” University.
The Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Naples “Federico II” has been founded in 2013 (www.dii.unina.it). It is one of the largest departments at the University of Naples, with more than 100 professors and researchers working in several areas, including mechanical and aerospace engineering. In that of Industrial Engineering is one of the largest departments dealing with aerospace engineering in Italy. The Aerospace Section of the Department has a long tradition dating its roots back in 1926, established by Gen. Prof. U. Nobile, designer, pilot of airships and polar explorer. More than 80 years of continuing research and developments have built a solid and accredited tradition of excellence based upon a strong relationship between the academic community, the aerospace industry and the research centres, locally and internationally. The average number for the undergraduate (first level) students in Aerospace Engineering is about 250, for the undergraduate (second level, master) is about 110.
Research activities in Aircraft Design and recently on Hybrid/Electrict Aircraft are carried out by DAF research group (www.daf.unina.it) in collaboration with industrial partners such as Tecnam, ATR, Leonardo. The know-how concerning development of tools and methodologies for aircraft analysis, design and optimization (like also MDA/MDO aircraft frameworks) has been achieved by the Design of Aircraft and Flight technologies (DAF) research group coordinated by Prof. F. Nicolosi in the last 20 years. The group has developed in the last years efficient tools for the reliable modelling and analysis of hybrid/electric aircraft. The DAF research group have been recently dealing with research activities on the conceptual and preliminary design of electric/hybrid aircraft as it can be seen from several relevant scientific articles published in high-level journals and relevant international conference. The research activities has been carried out in the frame of European projects (Clean Sky 2 and H2020) in collaboration with relevant industrial partners (Leonardo, GE Avio, AIRBUS, Rolls Royce) and research centers (DLR, ONERA, CIRA, AIT).
Role in HERA
The University of Naples (UNINA), through DAF research group will contribute in HERA to several WP. In particular the main effort will be on WP2, WP5, WP6, WP7 and WP8.
WP2) Support to the TLAR optimization, possible trade-off between emissions, cost and productivity, optimization of the flight mission (i.e., cruise altitude and or typical and design range). Set-up of the best ground performance (effect of ground performance on efficiency and consumption). Study of the effect of reduced flight speed and different altitudes for the optimization of the flight mission.
WP3) Assessment activity concerning wing and fuselage interaction and fairing design for slender wing configuration. High-lift devices optimization. Aircraft stability and control concept and implications on the wing design.
WP5) Design and sizing of Configuration. The research group has experience in design of regional aircraft with hybrid and electric propulsion. UNINA will support and develop the concept generation, the concept analysis and its optimization.
Unina will support the Definition References 2020/2035 aircraft configurations and key performance support the best definition of global A/C efficiency evaluation with a weighted Figure of Merit including A/C emissions and A/C productivity (Payload x Range).
UNINA will be involved also in 5.2 (high fidelity CFD aerodynamic analysis) with dedicated analysis for aircraft drag prediction, maximum lift estimation, component optimization (i.e. winglet, fairing and wing strut) and aircraft stability and control.
UNINA will be also involved in Task 5.6 concerning scalability of Hera project for commuter class aircraft.
WP6) UNINA will prepare and develop some wind Tunnel Tests. The research activities proposed in this Task aims at developing a supplementary wind-tunnel test campaign to be performed in the low-speed low-Reynolds wind-tunnel of the University of Naples. The Research group has matured experience in wind-tunnel tests and in WTT model design and manufacturing and all tests procedure. Other support activities will address the flight demonstrator, with some flight performance analysis for the demonstration strategy.
WP7) UNINA will contribute with research activities addressing the best path for the digitalization of the design chain and the best flowchart for trade-off studies, and more specifically Digitalization techniques definition. Some activities will address the simulation of the aircraft in 7.1.
Concerning Task 7.2 UNINA will perform research activities aimed at building efficient models and tools to run efficiently trade-off studies for the best design of the architectures.
UNINA will contribute with specific analysis methodologies for aircraft design addressing flight performance, stability and control assessment, weight prediction methods, and performance analysis of hybrid electric/hydrogen aircraft. Other activities will deal with geometry generation and manipulation to link 7.2 with high-fidelity analysis (WP5).
In particular, UNINA will contribute to build(with special direction given by LDO) the 7.2.2, so the encrypted software for mission and performance and trajectory evaluation. The simulation of the whole mission will be built for the analysis of performance and emissions. A detailed step by step simulation will help to define and calculate with high accuracy the ground and flight performance. All the input such as the aerodynamic model of the aircraft and the engine deck model (for thermal engine and electric/fuel cell part) will be highly detailed in order to appreciate differences arising from small modifications of the hybridization factor during the mission as well as small modification of the A/C component characteristics. UNINA has been developing software and tool for aircraft design and analysis and is very well skilled in order to assemble the most efficient and reliable tool for the accurate analysis of the flight mission (including take-off and landing) of the hybrid/electric regional aircraft.
In Task 7.4 UNINA will provide the CAD reference model of the aircraft and the estimation of CoG taking into account new equipment UNINA will carry out studies and analyses related to the installation of new equipment on-board (i.e. those mostly affected by electrification / hybridization). UNINA will provide surrogate models for:
- Turboprop compatible with the A/C at hand (e.g. PW127M), including engine deck
- Propeller data / performance-map / efficiency
- Efficiency data for Gearbox and transmissions
Furthermore, activities will involve a stage of performance check, to verify compliance with CS25 and related standards and regulations.
WP8) Regional Configuration assessment. UNINA DAF group will support the final evaluation of the results achieved in the project, the final evaluation of the solutions proposed. The results of this Task will help to identify the main constraints and the main technological challenges for this new category of aircraft (regional hybrid/electric concepts). An accurate evaluation of the aircraft impact including also aspects concerning the life of the airplane will be performed. The DAF group will also strongly support the definition and accurate evaluation of the life-cycle cost scenario for the regional configuration designed in Task 8.2. The research group has matured experience in recent project and especially in GENESIS CS2 project (https://www.genesis-cleansky.eu/) where some detailed studies of different A/C configuration and propulsive architecture have been performed taking into consideration the life cycle cost of the proposed solutions obtaining at the end a clear scenario concerning trade-off between emission impact and economic sustainability of several new propulsive concepts.